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Pridavniky

Sklånjanje

Adjectives match with the noun they modify in gender, case and number. Declension is always regular. However, three things are to be remembered:

  • Adjectives are heavily affected by the {{ link slug='phonology#o--e' }}o/e rule{{/link}} and {{ link slug='phonology#y--ie' }}y/i rule{{/link}}, which means that a distinction is made between hard stems and soft stems: if the stem ends in š, ž, č or j, then every -o- becomes -e- and every -y- becomes -i-.
  • Just like in the case of nouns, the accusative of has the same form as the genitive when the corresponding noun is masculine and animate, both singular and plural.
  • Except for adjectives referring to masculine, animate nouns, the nominate and accusative plural are identical for all genders.

The basic endings (applying not only to adjectives, but also to possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns and the like) are:

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Example of the declension of hard adjectives: dobry „good”:

{{ svelteComponent name='DeclensionAdj' props='{"word":"dobry"}' options='{}' /}}

Example of the declension of soft adjectives: svěži „fresh”:

{{ svelteComponent name='DeclensionAdj' props='{"word":"svěži"}' options='{}' /}}

Kråtka forma

A small number of adjectives exist in the so-called short form, a relic of the indefinite declension of adjectives in Common Slavic. This short form differs from regular adjectives only in the masculine nominative singular by omitting the ending -y/-i. The most common examples are the possessive adjectives -ov and -in, respecively expressing ownership by a masculine and feminine person: Petrov dom „Peter’s house”, materin stol „mother’s table”. All other forms are regular: Petrova kniga „Peter’s book”, na materinom stolu „on mother’s table”.

These possessive adjectives are only used when the possessor is a single word. In other cases, the genitive is used: bratova kniga „brother’s book”, but: kniga mojego brata „my brother’s book”; Puškinova poezija „Pushkin’s poetry”, but: poezija Aleksandra Puškina „Aleksandr Pushkin’s poetry”.

The short form may also be used when the adjective forms the predicate of the sentence: Petr jest ščestliv „Peter is happy”, dom jest velik „the house is big”, etc. This is not mandatory though, and in most cases, people will simply write: Petr jest ščestlivy and dom jest veliky.

Prislovniky

Adverbs can be derived from adjectives by using the ending -o (-e after a soft consonant). In other words, they are identical to the neuter singular: dobro „well”, svěže „freshly”.

Stupnjevanje

Comparatives and superlatives can be built in two ways: a simple (analytic) form and a more complex (synthetic) form.

Analytic comparative

This way of forming a comparative is easiest to use. Simply have the ground form (the positive) of an adjective or adverb preceded by vyše or bolje „more”: vyše prosty „more simple = simpler”. This solution can be used for all adjectives and adverbs, but is most likely encountered in the case of very long words, foreign words, and participles: vyše/bolje sintetičny „more synthetic”, vyše/bolje smrdeči „more stinking”.

Synthetic comparative

The basic comparative ending for adjectives -ějši (-ejši after a soft consonant), replacing the ending -y/-i: bogaty > bogatějši, slaby > slabějši, blagy > blažejši, svěži > svěžejši.

These endings can simply be made into adverbs by replacing the element -ši by -e (giving the ending -ěje/-eje instead of the adverbial ending -o/-e): novo > nověje, čisto > čistěje, tiho > tišeje, svěže > svěžeje.

An exception are adjectives on -ky, -eky, -oky, which have -ši instead: kratky > kratši, tenky > tenši, daleky > dalši, vysoky > vysši.

The comparatives of these adjectives can be adverbialised by adding the ending -je to the root, causing {{ link slug='phonology#iotation' }}iotation{{/link}} of the preceding consonant(s): daleko > dalje, široko > širje, vysoky > vyše, blizko > bliže, rědko > rědže.

Irregular comparatives

Seven adjectives have an irregular comparative:

  1. dobry „good” > lěpši (adv. lěpje) or lučši (adv. lučše) „better”

  2. zly „bad” > gorši (adv. gorje) „worse”

  3. veliky „big, large” > večši (adv. veče) or bolši (adv. bolje) „bigger, larger”

  4. maly „little, small” > menši (adv. menje) „smaller, less”

  5. blagy „pleasant, joyful” > unši (adv. unje) „more pleasant/joyful”

  6. legky „easy, light” > legši (adv. legše) „easier, lighter”

  7. mekky „soft” > mekši (adv. mekše) „softer”

It is not impossible to use regular forms of these adjectives (like dobrějši or zlějši), but to the average Slav this will look childish or artificial.

Superlative

The superlative is formed by adding the prefix naj- to the comparative: najnovějši (adj.), najnověje (adv.). This works for the analytic comparative, too: najvyše/najbolje sintetičny.

As a means of simplification, this ending can also be added to the positive instead (which is how superlatives are made in Bulgarian and Macedonian): najnovy (adj.), najnovo (adv.).

Additional forms

The adverbs menje and najmenje can be used to express the opposite meaning of vyše/bolje and najvyše/najbolje, meaning „less” and „least” respectively.

The prefix prě- attached to the positive can be used as a kind of superlative as well, expressing an extreme or excessive degree („very”, „too”).

The prefix ne- creates a negative: neprijetny „not pleasant, unpleasant”.

Example

  • prosty „simple“ (adjective, positive)
  • prosto „simply“ (adverb, positive)
  • prostějši „simpler“ or vyše prosty or bolje prosty „more simple, simpler“
  • prostěje „simplier“ or vyše prosto or bolje prosto „more simply, simplier“
  • najprostějši or najprosty or najvyše prosty or najbolje prosty „simplest“
  • najprostěje or najprosto or najvyše prosto or najbolje prosto „simpliest, most simply“
  • menje prosty „less simple“
  • menje prosto „less simply“
  • najmenje prosty „least simple“
  • najmenje prosto „least simply“
  • neprosty „not simple“
  • prěprosty „too simple, overly simple, extremely simple“