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Zaimenniky

Osobne i svratne zaimenniky

Personal pronouns have six cases—the same as nouns but without the vocative. The reflexive pronoun sebe is inflected like ty, tebe, ..., the only difference being that it does not have a nominative.

The forms between brackets are clitic forms, i.e. they are weaker and always unstressed. Se is used in reflexive verbs: Ja myju se „I'm washing myself”. If it needs to be stressed, the longer form is used: Ja myju jedino sebe „I wash nobody but myself”. After a preposition, it is better to use the longer forms: k mně, za tebe.

{{ svelteComponent name='TablePersonalPronouns' props='{}' options='{}' /}}

Notes:

  1. After a preposition, all pronouns of the third person are preceded by n-: jego > do njego; jim > pri njim, etc. (for that reason, the locative forms jim, jej and jih never occur, as the locative is always preceded by a preposition)
  2. If you are curious how these forms relate to the Slavic languages, you can see them compared here.

A few notes regarding usage:

  • Because not all verb endings are equally obvious to all speakers of Slavic languages, pro-drop (i.e. omitting personal pronouns when they are the subject of a sentence) is not recommended. It is better to say „ja čitaju“ instead of just „čitaju“, although the latter is definitely not incorrect.
  • Prepositions can govern any case but the nominative, depending on their usage in the Slavic languages.
  • The pronoun on refers to any noun of masculine gender and not only to male beings. In the same way, the pronoun ona refers to any noun of feminine gender and not only to female beings.
  • As all natural Slavic languages, Interslavic has got T-V distinction, i.e. vy is a universal second person pronoun for both numbers, whereas the second person singular ty is used only for addressing friends, relatives and children.
  • The reflexive pronoun can also be used as a reciprocal pronoun: „Oni bijut se“ can mean „They are hitting themselves“, but would rather have the meaning: „They are hitting each other“. To be more explicit about the meaning „each other“, you can add the formula jedin drugogo: „Oni bijut se jedin drugogo“.

Prisvojiteljne zaimenniky

The possessive pronouns are inflected like adjectives, except for the zero ending in the masculine singular. The forms are:

  • moj, moja, moje „my“
  • tvoj, tvoja, tvoje „your, thy“
  • naš, naša, naše „our“
  • vaš, vaša, vaše „your (pl.)“
  • svoj, svoja, svoje „one's own“ (reflexive)

In the third person, it is most common to use the genitive of the corresponding personal pronoun: jego, jej, jih. These forms are not inflected. Alternatively, one can also use the following forms, which are declined like adjectives:

  • jegov, jegova, jegovo „his“
  • jejin, jejina, jejino „her“
  • jihny, jihna, jihno „their“

Whenever the possessor is also the subject of the sentence, the reflexive svoj is used, no matter whether this subject is in the third person or not: Ja myju svoje avto „I am washing my car“. Note the difference in meaning when the reflexive pronoun refers to a subject in the third person:

Pjotr dal Ivanu svoju knigu „Pjotr gave Ivan his [= Pjotr's] book“\ Pjotr dal Ivanu jegovu knigu „Pjotr gave Ivan his [= Ivan's] book“.

There are also interrogative, definite and indefinite possessive pronouns: čij „whose“, ničij „nobody's“, něčij „somebody's“, etc. They are inflected like moj. For more forms, see the section about correlatives.

Just like adjectives, possessive pronouns correspond with the noun they modify in gender, number and case. Except for the masculine nominative and accusative singular, their declension is identical to that of adjectives (moj, tvoj, naš, vaš, svoj and čij like svěži; jegov, jejin and jihny like dobry):

[Missing table]

Ukazateljne zaimenniky

The primary demonstrative pronoun is toj „this, that”, and it should be used whenever there is no need to distinguish explicitly between this one over here and that one over there.

If we need to be more precise, the simplest solution is using tutoj for „this” and tamtoj for „that, yonder”. They are declined as follows:

[Missing table]

Notes:

  1. Less simple, but historically more accurate, is the following three-way distinction: sej (f. sa, n. se) for „this”, toj for „that” and onoj for „yonder”. It should be remembered, however, that sej has practically vanished from most modern languages except for a few fossilized remnants. It may therefore not always be clear.
  2. Another demonstrative pronoun is ov, meaning the same thing as sej. However, its meaning is very different in the modern languages.
  3. Tutoj, tamtoj, ov and onoj are declined like toj.
  4. Instead of the plurals tyh, tym and tymi one might sometimes encounter těh, těm and těmi.

Odnositeljne zaimenniky

The relative pronoun that is used most frequently is ktory. It is inflected like an ordinary adjective. Alternatively, South Slavic koj (inflected like moj) can be used as well. Their meanings are identical and they can be used interchangably.

A third option is the more archaic iže – used in the nominative for all genders, both singular and plural; in other cases it is inflected like a form of the personal pronoun on/ona/ono with the suffix -že: m.gen.sg. jegože, m.dat.sg. jemuže etc.

Pytateljne zaimenniky

The interrogative pronouns are kto „who” and čto (or što) „what”. They are inflected as follows:

[Missing table]

Interrogative determiners are koj (inflected like moj) „which” (instead, ktory can be used as well), the possessive pronoun čij „whose” (see above), and the adjective kaky „what kind of”.

Neoznačiteljne zaimenniky

This is a large group of pronouns and determiners, most of which are derived regularly from the interrogative pronouns. There are several categories:

  • Referring to all items (universal) (vs-): vsi or vsekto „everyone, everybody“, vse or vsečto „everything“; ves (f. vsa, n. vse „whole, entire; all“); cěly „whole, entire“; vsaky „each, every“; vsekaky „each kind of, all sorts of“; vsečij „everybody's“.
  • Referring to no items (negative) (ni-): nikto „no one, nobody“, ničto „nothing“, nikoj, nijedin and nikaky „not a single, none“, ničij „nobody's“.
  • Referring a single unspecified item (ně-): někto „someone, somebody“, něčto „something“, někoj „some“, někaky „some kind of“, něčij „someone's, somebody's“.
  • Referring to several unspecified items (poně-): poněkoj „some, several“, poněkaky „several kinds of“.
  • Referring to a large group of items: mnogy „much, many, a lot of“.
  • Referring to any member of a group (-koli, -nebud, libo-): ktokoli, libokto, kto-nebud „anyone, anyone“, čtokoli, libočto, čto-nebud „anything“; kojkoli, libokoj, koj-nebud „any“, kakykoli, libokaky, kaky-nebud „any kind of“; čijkoli, libočij, čij-nebud „anyone's, anybody's“. To indicate indifference, the adverb bylo can be used: bylo kto „no matter who, just anybody“, bylo čto „no matter what“, etc.
  • Referring to another item of a group (in-): inokto „someone else“, inočto „something else“, iny „other“, inočij „someone else's“.

Vsekto, nikto, něčto, čtokoli etc. are inflected like kto and čto. Likewise, nikoj, něčij etc. are inflected like koj and čij (and thus like moj). Ves is inflected as follows:

[Missing table]

Zaimenne prislovniky

One of Zamenhof's best inventions was his table of correlatives, a group of interrelated pronouns, adjectives and adverbs. There words have been kept as regular as possible, but not at the expense of recognisability for speakers of Slavic languages. A few virtually impossible words have been left out, and a few other regular forms have been replaced by forms that are common in the natural languages. Irregular forms (i.e. not looking the way they should according to the table) are shown in italics.

[Missing table]

Notes:

  • In all cases when koj appears, ktory can be used interchangeably.
  • In all cases when -gda appears, -gdy can be used interchangeably.